Миллионы телезрителей и любителей музыки во всем мире сегодня имеют возможность наслаждаться неповторимыми звуковыми картинами, которые обеспечивают звуковые видео системы "Домашний кинотеатр". Общим во всех этих системах, от самой простой до наиболее сложной, является система с цифровым звуковым процессором, обеспечивающим волнующий, объемный многоканальный звук, который раньше можно было услышать только в хорошо оборудованных кинотеатрах.
Если Вы имеете такую систему или планируете ее приобретение для вашего дома, это руководство для Вас. В нем мы коснемся того, что Вы должны знать, чтобы выбрать, установить, и получить все, на что способна система домашнего кинотеатра с Dolby Surround. За небольшое время,с наименьшими усилиями и знаниями, ваша инвестиция окупит себя и будет доставлять вам много приятных минут в течении многих лет.
Как все это начиналось...
В течение более чем сорока лет, многоканальные саундтреки звучат в кинотеатрах, создавая атмосферу присутствия для большой аудитории. В дополнение к левому и правому каналам звуковой дорожки, в кинотеатрах также используют центральный канал, который предназначен для того, чтобы обеспечивать неразрывность звуковой картины для всех зрителей, плюс канал окружающего звука, воспроизводимый громкоговорителями по сторонам и в тылу аудитории, который окунает зрителя в происходящие на экране события и создает специальные эффекты.
Сначала, многоканальный звук в кино можно было обеспечить только используя дорогостоящую аппаратуру с музыкой на магнитных носителях, ограничивая тем самым пригодность для массового использования. Затем, в 1976 году, компания Dolby Stereo революционизировала кинопроизводство, записывая многоканальный звук из кинофильма на доступной технике. Эта технология была затем усовершенствована, чтобы можно было использовать многоканальную музыку из кинофильма в домашних условиях. Она и была названа, Dolby Surround, чтобы можно было отличить ее от профессиональной системы кино Dolby Stereo.
Что это такое...
Dolby Surround - это двухступенчатый процесс кодирования/декодирования, включающий в себя средство записи и воспроизведения(магнитофон). Музыку из кинофильма разделяют на четыре канала звуковой информации, а затем каналы кодируются на две дорожки звукового носителя при помощи оборудования, производимого компанией Dolby Laboratories. Эти носители затем используются в качестве источников программ: видеоленты и радиопередачи телевидения, которые могут обрабатываться декодером Dolby Surround.
Сегодня тысячи пленок на домашних полках, также как и многие телевизионные программы, звуковые кассеты, и компакт-диски, кодируются в системе Dolby Surround. Если Вы слушаете их при помощи обычной стерео аппаратуры с двумя каналами, то они будут звучать как любая другая стерео программа. С декодером Dolby Surround, Вы заметите как много значит та информация, котрую вы не замечали ранее, содержащаяся внутри кодируемой музыки из кинофильма.
Что вам необходимо
Система домашнего театра с Dolby Surround, может иметь различную реализацию, и быть не сложной и не дорогой. Если Вы имеете телевизор и стерео систему, Вы можете просто прибавить несколько дополнительных громкоговорителей и декодер/усилитель, оборудованный декодером Dolby Surround. Вы можете оборудовать свою систему независимо от вашего оборудования или бюджета.
Основы Dolby Surround Pro Logic
Имеются два вида дешифраторов: Dolby Surround и Dolby Surround Pro Logic. Основу системы Dolby Surround составляют левые и правые передние громкоговорители (так называемый "фронт"), которые функционируют в нормальном стерео режиме без каких либо изменений, в то время как к громкоговорителям окружающего звука подводится сигнал с относительно простого пассивного матричного дешифратора.
Левые и правые фронтальные громкоговорители создают непрерывное звуковое пространство (режим "фантома"), но только для относительно небольшого числа зрителей, сидящих в центре. Декодеры Pro Logic используют отдельный центральный канал, чтобы привязать диалоги и другие звуки близкие к центру экрана.
Pro Logic также лучше разделяет все четыре канала между собой, которые наряду с центральным каналом позволяют значительно расширить область, в которой искажения звуковой картины минимальны. Dolby Surround Pro Logic - это наилучший способ точного воспроизведения звуковой дорожки из фильма. Он гарантирует, что вы услышите все так, как это задумывал режисер и как бы это было в настоящем кинотеатре.
Основа декодеров Dolby Surround:
В Dolby Surround Pro Logic дополнительно:
Некоторые дешифраторы Pro Logic также предлагают дополнительный способ декодирования - Dolby 3 Стерео, в котором присутствуют только левый, центральный и правый каналы. Этот способ применяется там, где полного окружения, не требуется, но широкая стереобаза желательна. Телевизор, например, может быть расположен с далеко поставленными друг от друга громкоговорителями, тогда добавляют центральный громкоговоритель, чтобы улучшить воспроизведение диалога. Dolby 3 Стерео может быть полезен, если вам негде установить тыловые громкоговорители, а также это может оказаться предпочтительным для таких источников программ, как стерео-телевидение или музыка с вокальными соло.
Левый и правый каналы
Левые и правые каналы в системе Surround, как и в обычной стереосистеме, являются полнодиаппазонными. Кроме того, в системе Pro Logic, они несут низкочастотную составляющую центрального канала, если он используется в режиме "Normal" (как описано ниже). Таким образом левые и правые громкоговорители должны воспроизводить полный диапазон частот, иметь хороший спектральный баланс, быть согласованными друг с другом, обеспечивать одинаковую громкость и иметь низкие искажения. В целом, требования к хорошей стерео системе могут быть применены в равной степени и к многоканальной Surround системе.
Центральный канал в системе Pro Logic несет не только диалог, твердо привязанный к экрану независимо от того, где вы находитесь, но еще и значительную долю других экранных звуков, специальных эффектов и музыки. Он также должен соблюдать тембр и качество изменяющихся звуков, поскольку они двигаются от одного фронтального канала к другому. В идеале, центральный громкоговоритель должен иметь такое же усиление, как у левого и правого каналов.
Декодер Pro Logic имеет селекцию режимов Центра, описанную ниже, которая позволяет вам использовать меньший центральный громкоговоритель и усилитель без серьезного ухудшения всей системы. Центральный громкоговоритель должен звучать в середине и в области высоких частот так же, как и фронтальные громкоговорители. Для лучшего воспроизведения, некоторые дешифраторы обеспечивают выравнивание, которое допускает регулировку частотной характеристики центрального громкоговорителя.
Режимы Цетра в Pro Logic
Все дешифраторы Pro Logic обеспечивают выбор рабочего режима центрального канала: некоторые единицы предлагают режим "Wide".
Режим "Normal" устраняет бас (частоты ниже 100 Гц) из центра, и перераспределяет его между фронтальными громкоговорителями, чтобы сохранить первоначальный уровень басов программы (это не влияет на объем звука, потому что бас ненаправлен). В большинстве случаев этот способ позволяет вам достигнуть хорошего звучания, используя небольшой центральный громкоговоритель, к которому подводят примерно до половины(но не меньше чем одна треть) мощности, предусмотренной для левого и правого каналов. Фактически, необходимая мощность определяется чувствительностью громкоговорителя, а так же тем, используется уравнивание центрального канала или нет.
Режим "Fantom" - для использования без центрального громкоговорителя; он перераспределяет всю информацию центрального канала на левый и правый каналы, обеспечивая обычный стерео сигнал на фронте. Для зрителей, сидящих в середине, информация центрального канала будет появляться как изображение фантома между левым и правым громкоговорителями. Однако, будет иметь место тенденция к уходу звука от центра в сторону ближайшего к зрителю громкоговорителя. Следовательно, убедитесь, что вы установили центральный громкоговоритель, так как он является одним из преимуществ системы Pro Logic.
Режим "Wide" - используйте его только тогда, когда вы имеете полнодиапазонный центральный громкоговоритель, который может воспроизводить бас. В этом режиме усилитель центра будет воспроизводить басы так же как и у фронтального канала, так что он должен иметь ту же самую выходную мощность, что и усилители фронта.
The surround channel in Dolby Surround programming deliberately does not contain extremely low frequencies (below 100 Hz) or high frequencies (above 7 kHz). Upon playback, the surround channel signal passes through a 7 kHz low-pass filter and a modified Dolby B-type noise reduction processor in the decoder to reduce both noise and distracting high frequency signals that might leak through from the front channels. The surround signal is also delayed slightly to increase the apparent separation between the front and surround channels.
Although there may be some leakage of low bass from the front channels to the surround channel on Dolby Surround programming, there is no need for the surround speakers to reproduce it; only the front channels' low bass needs to be heard. On the other hand, while not needed for Dolby Surround, full treble response is recommended for the surround speakers, because other processing modes and future delivery formats (such as Dolby Surround Digital) may take advantage of it.
All in all, the requirements for surround speakers are much the same as for the center channel in a Pro Logic system set to Normal. Thus you can use the same speaker models for the surrounds and the center, which will also help to assure good timbre matc hing. Home theatre systems that use five identical satellite speakers for left, center, right, and surround, plus a separate subwoofer for the non-directional low bass, are particularly effective at combining accurate channel matching with cost-effectiveness and ease of installation.
While the surround channel is monophonic, most A/V products provide two separate amplifiers for the two surround speakers. In general, their combined power output need be only about one-half that of one front channel (left or right) for satisfactory perfo rmance. With any given installation, however, the actual amount of power required for the surrounds or any other channel is affected by how loud you like to listen, speaker sensitivity (efficiency), the use of tone controls or equalization to boost sounds, and how much sound is "soaked up" by the listening room's furnishings.
The use of surround is an art that varies from program to program. Some programs feature the surround channel extensively for prominent effects, while others use it only to create ambiance. Most of the time, mixers use surround to envelop you in continuous low-level "atmospherics," such as wind through the trees, and only occasionally for discrete special effects. This avoids drawing your attention away from the action on the screen.
Левые и правые АС
In a Pro Logic system, the left and right speakers should form an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the listening position (see illustration). This duplicates the speaker arrangement used both for mixing surround soundtracks and for a center seat about two-thirds of the way back in a well-designed movie theatre. It also works well for conventional stereo music sources.
If you're not using a center speaker, you may need to place the left and right speakers closer to the screen for good integration of sound and picture but not so close that their magnetic fields disturb the picture. If necessary, use magnetically shielded speakers.
For best directional effect, try to have the center speaker at the same height as the left and right speakers (2) and as close as possible to the screen. Place it directly atop or beneath the TV set only if it is magnetically shielded, as the magnetic field from a conventional speaker could distort the picture's color.
The front of the center speaker should also be aligned with, or slightly behind, the left and right speakers. Avoid having it forward of the left and right speakers, as that could adversely affect sound perspectives for listeners seated off center.
It may also be possible to use your TV's built-in speakers for the center channel if there is adequate power and fidelity, and if the set has appropriate audio inputs (check your owner's manual).
Properly conveying both directional effects and diffuse ambiance requires an evenly distributed surround soundfield comprising both direct and reflected sound. This is achieved in movie theatres by means of many direct-radiating surround speakers (typically ten to twenty) along the sides and rear of the auditorium.
Listening tests have confirmed that it is the side speakers that contribute the spaciousness or "openness" associated with good surround sound. Theatres use speakers at the rear only because without them, the surround soundfield would appear to be in front of, rather than around, those seated in the back rows. In home environments, just two surround speakers, one to each side, are usually enough to achieve proper results.
Too much direct sound from the surround speakers can make their location too obvious, or create an earphone-like, "in-the-head" sound image. On the other hand, too much diffusion may disperse the image such that it is utterly directionless, seemingly everywhere at once. Finding the right balance of direct and reflected sound means considering speaker placement, room design, and the acoustic characteristics of both.
If you use direct or dipole radiating surround speakers, place them on the side walls alongside the seating position, two or three feet above seated listeners' heads. If the seating area is unusually deep, two surround speakers along each side instead of one may be desirable. In-wall speakers, while more difficult to install, can resolve any decor quandaries.
In most cases, direct radiating surround speakers should be aimed straight across the room towards each other, not down at the listeners, to create a proper blend of direct and reflected sound. If the room is unusually "live" (with lots of bare sound-reflecting surfaces), however, it may be advisable to tilt the surround speakers down slightly towards the listeners, to increase the ratio of direct to reflected sound for greater clarity. Conversely, in a particularly "dead" room (thick, sound-absorbing carpeting, heavy drapes, etc.), aiming the speakers toward the rear wall or ceiling can increase reflections for greater diffuseness.
If it is not possible to locate the surround speakers in a preferred way, experiment creatively with their placement, keeping in mind the goal of a diffuse and enveloping but not overly vague soundfield. Here are some alternative locations:
Тыл со специфическим дизайном
Not all surround speakers are conventional direct radiator designs. There are single-cabinet models, for example, designed for placement directly behind and above the listening position, that can be very effective when the usual pair of surround speakers is precluded by room layout or aesthetic considerations. These models use multiple speaker drivers firing upward and to the sides, creating a good surround soundfield by means of ceiling and side wall reflections.
There are also many so-called "dipole" designs that radiate most of their sound to the front and rear, placing the listeners in a "null" so that comparatively little direct sound reaches them. These units generally work best when mounted on the side walls as recommended for direct radiating surround speakers. As their soundfield consists mostly of back and front wall reflections, however, dipole designs are more dependent on the room and its acoustics than conventional models.
In any case, be sure to consult your surround speakers' owner's manual for any special installation considerations.
Сабвуферы Because they reproduce only non-directional low bass, subwoofers do not contribute to sound localization, and therefore need not be in line of sight to the viewer (in many cases they can even be tucked away under or behind furniture). The accuracy and smoothness with which they reproduce low bass, however, does depend on their placement.
First, temporarily put the subwoofer near your favorite listening position. Then, as you play program material with significant low bass content, go stand and listen at likely subwoofer locations in the room. That location which delivers the best bass sound clean and full, but not "boomy" or "thuddy" will be the best for final subwoofer placement.
When it comes to choosing the component that implements the surround decoding, bear in mind both your current equipment and any likely future expansion. Among your considerations should be the following:
1. Basic Dolby Surround or Pro Logic? If cost is a critical factor, basic Dolby Surround decoding may fill the bill. Pro Logic, however, provides the most accurate surround decoding and the most involving listening experience and it need not cost much more.
2. Configuration. Surround decoding is available built into television sets, powered surround speaker systems, A/V receivers, control preamplifiers and amplifiers, add-on decoder/amplifiers, stereo rack systems, satellite receivers, and compact music centers. Your choice will depend primarily on what you have now that will be suitable for your surround installation.
3. Input and program source flexibility. The new equipment should have inputs for all your current audio/video units and accommodate future expansion. For example, if you have an S-video VCR, be sure that any new component that has video switching provides S-video inputs so you can take advantage of the higher performance format.
4. Amplifiers. Some decoder units have no amplification, and are meant to function as a control center for an elaborate system of separate components. Others have two or three amplifiers built in, on the assumption that you will use your current equipment to power the left and right channels. A/V receivers incorporate all the electronics you'll need, from surround decoding to amplifiers for all channels.
The louder you like to listen, the more amplifier power you'll need overall. But quality is just as important as quantity, and power requirements can vary with the various channels (see earlier discussion of the center and surround channels).
5. Subwoofer output. If you expect to add a subwoofer to your system, it will be made easier by choosing a decoder unit which has a separate subwoofer output. It is possible to add a subwoofer to almost any system, except (usually) those with surround decoding built into the television set.
6. Automatic input balance. Standard on most Pro Logic decoders, this feature prevents program material imbalances from degrading the surround decoding. You won't have to worry about manually adjusting the input balance to compensate for problems with program material.
7. Adjustable surround channel delay. If your room is of average size and proportions, then the fixed 20 ms delay time standard on all Dolby Surround decoders will be fine. But, if you sit unusually close to the surround or front speakers, choose a decoder with an adjustable delay that can be optimized for your circumstances
8. Tone controls/equalization. Some decoders have tone controls only for the left and right channels, and some units defeat the tone controls when a Dolby Surround mode is selected. Better models will have tone or equalization controls active in all modes, including Dolby Surround. Some Pro Logic units also have separate EQ for the center channel that can help you match the sound of your center speaker to the left and right speakers. Although rare, EQ for the surround channel can be of similar benefit.
9. Other signal processing. Some units incorporate audio processing modes other than Dolby Surround, usually to simulate various acoustic environments for music listening). If such extra modes interest you, look for a unit that implements them, and possibly Pro Logic decoding as well, with DSP (digital signal processing) circuitry. If your interest is exclusively in Dolby Surround, products with analog-based decoders may prove the better value.
10. Analog vs. digital processing. As described above, Pro Logic decoding may be implemented by analog or digital means. Because all implementations must meet the same decoding performance standards set by Dolby Laboratories, all give consistent results; there is no "best" version when it comes to decoding surround programming in your home. Each decoder product, therefore, must be evaluated on its own sonic qualities and economic merits, and on whether or not you want such features as additional processing modes or direct digital interface with high-end CD and LaserDisc players.
11. Ergonomics. Because the unit with surround decoding interconnects with virtually all your other components and becomes a focal point of the system, be sure that it connects easily, has all the features you want (such as remote control), and can be operated easily by everyone likely to use the system.
12. Professional installation. With an elaborate system in particular, a home theatre specialist can help you choose the right equipment, and install it in a way that both sounds right and complements your decor.
Громкость и динамический диапазон
Dolby Stereo film soundtracks are mixed and then heard in theatres at predefined, standard loudness levels. At home, you decide how loud to play these films as well as all other programming. How loud you like it will affect your choice of speakers and amplifier power.
The maximum loudness level favored by most listeners (and their neighbors!) is well below that achieved in the well-equipped cinema. Thus home equipment enabling full theatrical loudness, while available for those who want and can afford it, usually is not necessary.
Your system's ability to reproduce quiet, subtle sounds more a function of your listening room's isolation from extraneous sounds than of the playback equipment itself should also not be overlooked.
Basic Dolby Surround requires a minimum of three channels of amplification, for left, right, and surround channels. Many decoding units, however, provide separate amplifiers for two surround speakers, and Pro Logic requires an additional amplifier channel for the center speaker. Many audio/video receiver models therefore have as many as five amplifiers built in, while for more elaborate systems component power amplifiers with up to six channels are available.
As with any sound system, home theatre amplifiers should have low distortion, provide flat frequency response, and deliver enough power to let you play the system as loud as you prefer. While having too much power for one or more channels will be of no benefit, too little power on even one channel can be a weak link that limits the entire system's clarity and overall loudness range. The left, center, and right channels, and the surround channel as a whole, should be capable of equal loudness. The amplifier power that will make this possible will depend on speaker sensitivity and variations in bass content among the channels as explained in the earlier discussion of center and surround channel requirements.
As with any stereo system, be sure that the amplifiers will operate properly if you use speakers of less than 8 ohms impedance. This also applies to units with a single surround amplifier to which you are expected to connect two speakers in parallel.
Many film soundtracks feature powerful low bass effects (explosions, the rumble of spaceships, etc.) that help heighten your emotional involvement with the action on the screen, and many cinemas today are equipped with subwoofers special speakers dedicated to reproducing just the low bass. Because loudspeakers that are adequate for home music reproduction often cannot reproduce these powerful bass effects convincingly, home theatres, too, benefit from adding subwoofers. Should you decide to do so, be sure to follow the instructions supplied with the subwoofer and your surround decoding unit.
If your surround decoder has a proper subwoofer output that carries the low bass from all three front channels, simply connect it directly to the subwoofer amplifier input. If there is no subwoofer output, your subwoofer may be designed to accept (and internally combine) separate left and right input signals; check its instructions. If so, be sure to operate your system with the center channel mode set to Normal, which will redirect the center channel's low bass to the left and right channels, and thus on to the subwoofer.
Dolby Surround programming can arrive in your home via broadcast TV, cable TV, VCR, laser disc, or satellite receiver. Laser discs and many satellite transmission formats utilize digital audio, which, in addition to their high picture quality, makes them particularly excellent sources.
Each source must be capable of proper two-channel stereo to deliver the surround encoding. For example, while the VCR does not have to be a Hi-Fi model, it must at least have stereo linear tracks, and it must also have line level audio outputs.
While the RF output that lets you play a VCR over channel 3 or 4 on your TV can deliver stereo from the VCR's internal tuner, it will provide only a mono signal from tapes, even those that are recorded in stereo. What's more, regardless of the soundtrack format, both picture and sound quality are improved by using your video components' audio and video line outputs.
The audio outputs from all your video sources should be connected to the surround decoding unit. Because there are an increasing number of music recordings being produced in Dolby Surround, you may also want to connect your CD player and/or cassette deck.
A satisfying home theatre installation does not require a large, expensive screen. Many viewers happily continue to use their existing television set when adding a surround system, finding that the expanded soundfield enhances their viewing sufficiently. But others, wishing to get closer to the movie theatre experience, upgrade to a larger direct view set (up to 35 inches), a rear projection model (45 to 60 inches), or a front projection system delivering a 100-inch or larger picture. With front projection, you can even get a perforated screen and place your front three speakers out of sight behind it, just like in a movie theatre.
The size of the screen is not the only factor in the perceived picture size; distance from the screen is equally important. A 32" picture, for example, can seem just as big as a larger picture viewed from a greater distance. Viewing distance is usually constant for a given room, however, so that the larger the screen, the larger the perceived picture.
Due to resolution limits, such as those imposed by scanning lines, a viewing distance of about four times the picture's height usually provides the biggest perceived picture without undue degradation. This distance will vary with the set's quality and that of the source material, whether you use any image enhancing accessories such as a "line doubler," and your personal tolerance level for picture flaws. As shown at the right, a 10° to 15° viewing angle is appropriate for normal TV; about 20° is possible with normal TV combined with image enhancement; and 30° is likely for the high-definition television (HDTV) system now under development. The 45° or greater angle from a good seat in a theatre, however, is unlikely to be practical in the home in the foreseeable future.
In any case, video quality will be greatly enhanced by properly adjusting contrast, brightness, color saturation, and hue. Also keep room lighting from reaching the screen in a way that compromises deep black picture elements.
An audio equalizer can help to improve the overall sound of your system by smoothing its frequency response. Do not, however, connect an equalizer so that it affects the stereo signal prior to surround decoding. Altering the original level and phase relationships of an encoded signal could result in inaccurate decoding. Any equalization should occur only after surround decoding, at the left and right line outputs of the surround decoder (many A/V receivers provide external processor connections for just this purpose). If you use a two-channel stereo equalizer, use the Normal Pro Logic center channel mode so that center channel bass is routed to the left and right, where it can be affected by any low-frequency equalization you might apply.
Комната: неучтенный компанент
The listening room contributes as much to what you hear from your system as any of its components. Fortunately, the typical home listening room is usually friendlier to good sound reproduction than a large hall or theatre. A family-size audience means low background noise. Typical home furnishings help prevent echoes and reverberation that could muddy the dialogue. And it is both easier and less expensive to achieve wide frequency range and ample loudness with low distortion in a living room than in a large public place.
Room characteristics that contribute to good hi-fi music reproduction are just as appropriate for good home theatre sound. Carpeting on the floor and drapes on large picture windows will cut down on mid- and high-range sound reflections that can add harshness to music or muddy the dialogue. If you have the luxury of choosing among several potential sites for your system, avoid those rooms that have any two dimensions the same (such as a square room), or that have any one dimension exactly twice another (such as a room just twice as long as it is wide). Such dimensions aggravate "standing waves," low-frequency sound resonances that in some cases may color the sound.
Arrange the seating area so that it is centered between the side walls on which you mount the surround speakers. Speaker systems mounted in walls or furniture may require extra sealing, baffling, and/or damping to minimize reflections and refractions that could color the sound. Any cloth used to hide speakers must have a weave that is "open" enough to let high frequencies through. And of course, you should prevent other furnishings from rattling or vibrating on strong bass notes or sound effects.
Режимы Surround и музыка
Many surround decoders provide processing modes other than Dolby Surround, variously called "Hall," "Stadium," "Jazz Club," etc. These attempt to recreate the effect of hearing music performed in their namesake environments. A "Matrix" mode may also be provided to give either mono or conventional stereo programs added spatial dimensionality.
Depending on how the signal processing is accomplished, the effectiveness of these modes can vary widely from product to product. They are often preset to very high levels to make impressive demonstrations in the store, so check to make sure that they can be turned down once you get the unit home; too much processing quickly becomes very tiresome.
Дополнительные возможности для просмотра фильмов
The goal of cinema is to transport the audience to a different world by means of a huge, involving picture and all-encompassing multichannel sound. When the lights go down in the theatre, we are to "suspend disbelief" and forget where we really are. The goals of home theatre are much the same, particularly now that Pro Logic decoding makes it possible to hear a film's soundfield as originally crafted by its producers.
Nevertheless, there is still something uniquely attractive about experiencing movies in a well-designed, full-size Dolby Stereo cinema. This sensation, particularly the impact of effects, derives in part from the acoustics of the theatre itself. If your goal is to duplicate in your home these unique, more ephemeral aspects of the theatrical experience, Pro Logic serves as the starting point. Highly sophisticated surround decoders often offer additional processing designed to work in conjunction with Pro Logic to achieve a more "theatrical" experience. Some, for example, offer "Cinema" modes that use digital signal processing (DSP) to simulate the acoustics of real theatres. These can sound quite convincing, but only at considerable cost, so evaluate such units carefully before making a choice.
Other units provide "THX® Cinema" processing that strives to emulate the effect of a large theatre without actually simulating its acoustic reflections. THX-licensed processors use special equalization in all channels, and "decorrelation" of the surround channel to increase its diffusion. THX-licensed speaker systems must meet directivity criteria and other performance requirements. THX-licensed amplifiers are designed so that, in conjunction with licensed speakers, your home theatre can achieve virtually the same loudness levels reached in movie theatres.
These various additional modes are not new sound delivery formats, but additional forms of sound processing that are combined with Dolby Surround Pro Logic decoding. For more information on the processes and their intended function, consult the manufacturers of the products that incorporate them.
Системы с простым Dolby Surround
Speaker levels. Adjust the left/right balance as you would for any stereo system. Be sure in particular that dialogue is centered, apparently emanating from the screen for those viewers seated on center.
You can, if you wish, simply adjust the surround level so that it "sounds right." It should be set to deliver ambiance so subtle that you are hardly aware of it, but would immediately miss it were you to shut off the surround channel. Prominent surround effects are rare, but should be clearly audible when they do occur.
If you would like to leave less to chance and don't mind some experimentation, you can adjust your surround channel as follows to more closely approximate what the program's sound mixers intended:
1. Turn the decoder's input balance control all the way to one side to "fool" the decoder into sending equal-level signals to one front speaker and to both surround speakers (if this doesn't turn the opposite channel all the way down, return it to the center position, and disconnect one channel of the program source).
2. With the program playing, adjust the surround channel level so that both surround speakers together sound as loud as the one active front speaker.
3. Reset the input balance to center (or reconnect the disconnected input). Your surround speakers will now reproduce surround information on all Dolby Surround encoded program material at close to the originally intended level.
Input balance. The most obvious symptom of improper input balance is dialogue leakage into the surround channel. If you come across this symptom on a particular program, turn off the front speakers if you can, and adjust the input balance control until the dialogue is least audible in the surrounds (remember to turn the front speakers back on once you've completed the adjustment). If the leakage is still prominent, and/or it consists mostly of high frequency dialogue sibilance, then there may be phase errors in the source program which cannot be improved by any adjustment.
Системы с декодером Pro Logic
Speaker levels. Pro Logic units provide a built-in test signal generator called a noise sequencer that makes it particularly easy to balance all four channels. When you activate the sequencer (the switch may be marked "Test" or "Test Tone"), it sends a brief, specially filtered noise signal to each channel in turn. As the test signal "travels" from channel to channel, simply adjust the balance controls until each of the four channels individually plays at the same apparent loudness at your favorite listening position. While sufficiently accurate balance can usually be achieved by ear, you can use an inexpensive sound level meter if greater precision is desired.
Studio sound systems used to monitor the production of Dolby Surround programming and Dolby Stereo films are all balanced in precisely this way. Therefore, once you've balanced your Pro Logic system, it will reproduce Dolby Surround program material as originally intended, with no further adjustments necessary unless you change components, move the speakers, or reinstall the system in another location.
Input balance. If, like most Pro Logic decoders, yours has an automatic balance control, you needn't worry about adjusting input balance. Indeed, even without the automatic circuit, input balance is rarely a problem because Pro Logic will continue to provide good separation. If your decoder does not have an automatic control, however, you can adjust input balance precisely by first switching off the center channel or disconnecting the center speaker (do not use the Phantom mode). Then adjust the input balance control back and forth until minimum dialogue is heard from the left and right speakers. Be sure to turn the center channel back on or reconnect the center speaker when you've finished.
Speaker polarity. Just as with the two speakers in a stereo music system, it is important that all three front speakers in a Pro Logic system operate "in phase," with their cones moving back and forth together. The terminals on virtually all speakers and amplifiers are color coded to indicate polarity, enabling you connect all your speakers consistently: the "+" and "-," or red and black, terminals on each amplifier channel should connect to the corresponding terminals on each speaker. Speaker wire is also coded to facilitate this process.
Checking the polarity of the left and right front speakers is easily done by ear. With the surround decoding off, listen to a mono program source, such as a radio announcer's voice, over the two front speakers. When the speakers are in phase, the voice will appear to emanate from a point between the speakers. If not, the voice's location will be vague, even seemingly split between the two speakers. A more foolproof method is to place the left and right speakers facing each other literally an inch or two a part. If the speakers are out of phase, bass sounds will virtually disappear. If this happens, reverse the polarity of just one speaker, and leave it connected that way.
Checking the center speaker's polarity is not quite so simple. Listen to some familiar program material, including music-only sources, for sounds that you know should emanate from between the center and the left or right speaker, or for an effect that is slowly panned across the front. Go over to a point midway between the center and left or right speakers, and listen for such sounds to appear as focused, rather than diffused and vague, phantom images. If necessary, reverse the center speaker's connections and leave them where the imaging is clearest.
The polarity of the surround speakers, too, should be consistent with the others. However, if the surround field is too "monophonic," sounding almost inside your head like earphones on a mono signal, try reversing the polarity of one surround speaker to achieve a more diffuse effect.
In all Dolby Surround decoders, the surround channel is reproduced a split second after the front channels. This is done to enhance the localization of front sounds, and not, as is sometimes mistakenly thought, to add some kind of echo or reverb effect. According to a principle called the Haas effect, when identical sounds are reproduced one immediately after the other, the ear cannot distinguish the later sound. Therefore, a slight delay of the surround channel reduces the chances of your hearing leakage of sounds which are intended to come from only the front (such as dialogue).
In some units, the time delay is fixed at 20 ms, which is appropriate for the majority of home listening environments. Others provide a delay which is adjustable from 15 to 30 ms, allowing you to compensate for being seated unusually close to or far from the surround speakers. While the standard 20 ms setting will still be appropriate in most cases, you can adjust the delay. There is a wide range of acceptable results, so there is no need to be all that precise.
Every Dolby Stereo movie on stereo video cassette or laser disc, or broadcast over stereo television, cable, or satellite, is automatically Dolby Surround encoded whether or not a Dolby Surround logo is actually displayed. There are also television shows and music videos produced in Dolby Surround, and music-only Dolby Surround CDs and audio cassettes. Lists of Dolby Stereo films and Dolby Surround programming are available as described in For Further Information on the inside of the back cover.
Remember that Dolby Surround programming must reach you in stereo to be properly decoded. Most cable companies rebroadcast local stereo stations in stereo, but not necessarily satellite feeds such as premium movie channels and other cable-only services. If you have any questions, call your cable company.
You might also try switching on your Dolby Surround decoder with regular stereo programs. Dolby Surround encoding was designed for good compatibility with stereo and mono playback, so conventional stereo and surround encoded programs behave similarly when decoded. The surround information on encoded material may be more prominent, but most regular stereo program material contains naturally out-of-phase information, such as a concert hall's ambiance or audience applause, that will be decoded as surround sound. Leaving your Dolby Surround decoder on will give pleasant results most of the time, and you won't have to worry about when to turn it on and off.
Although there are two types of Dolby Surround decoders, basic and Pro Logic, there is only one form of Dolby Surround encoding. Therefore encoded program material generally displays the basic "Dolby Surround" logo.
Some stereo videos of Dolby Stereo movies inadvertently reproduce only the "Dolby Stereo" logo used to identify theatrical presentations; these are also Dolby Surround encoded.
Not all Dolby Surround TV programming is easy to identify. Some encoded shows are identified by the Dolby Surround logo up front, but others my show only a generic "Surround/Stereo where available" at the beginning, a Dolby Surround logo only in the end credits or no identification at all.
The linear audio tracks on video tapes may be recorded with Dolby B-type noise reduction for higher fidelity. Such tapes may carry a "Dolby System" or "Dolby B NR ON LINEAR TRACKS" logo, which does not mean that the program is necessarily in Dolby Surround.
In 1992, a new format providing multichannel digital sound on 35 mm films, Dolby Stereo Digital, was introduced. It required the development of a new form of multichannel digital audio coding, Dolby AC-3, which is also being incorporated as Dolby Surround AC-3 in tomorrow's home theatre systems. Delivering five full range channels left, center, right, and independent right and left surrounds plus a separate bass effects channel, the new technology will be used for the US high-definition (HDTV) system slated for introduction in 1996, and a new laser disc standard expected to debut in 1995. It is also being used in two-channel form for digital cable and satellite TV and music services.
When they become available, Dolby Surround AC-3 decoders will incorporate Pro Logic decoding for compatibility with existing Dolby Surround programs. These systems will all co-exist and complement each other for years to come, so there is no reason to put off investing in a home theatre, or to assume that today's Dolby Surround will suddenly become obsolete.
Dolby Surround AC-3 has much the same speaker and amplifier requirements as Pro Logic. The separate left and right surround channels, however, will be capable of the full frequency range, and may be used by mixers for new and more elaborate creative purposes. Thus it will be more important for your surround speakers to match the fronts in the mid and high frequencies. It still won't be necessary for them to reproduce deep bass, which can be redirected to the front speakers or to a subwoofer. Therefore, the home theatre speaker systems discussed earlier that combine five identical satellites with a subwoofer will be particularly ready for the new format.
Because the new format is based on sophisticated DSP techniques, when the first Dolby Surround AC-3 products appear, possibly by the end of 1995, they necessarily will be top-of-the-line models. Some manufacturers are also planning to introduce Pro Logic units that can be upgraded later to handle Dolby Surround AC-3. If you anticipate adding it to your system relatively early on, you might look for one of these models.